Водяника (Вороника, Шикша)
Относительно водяники мнения ботаников расходятся: одни ученые относят ее к отдельному семейству Водяниковые, другие — к семейству Вересковые (Эриковые).

Мнения по поводу видового состава рода Водяника также расходятся, но съедобные плоды есть у всех четырех основных ее видов (культивируется из них только один — вид водяника черная). Иными словами, хотя это растение распространено по всему земному шару и в местах своего естественного произрастания весьма популярно, по-настоящему оно до сих пор не изучено. У водяники очень много народных названий: шикша, вороника (по цвету ягоды), черная трава, багновка, медвежья ягода и даже ссыха (в честь мочегонного действия ягод, за которое водяника получила и свое основное родовое ботаническое название).

Водяника распространена по всему миру, особенно по Северному полушарию, начиная с зоны с умеренным климатом до субарктической зоны. Страны, где она встречается, сложно перечислить: это и Россия (включая Сибирь и Дальний Восток, в том числе Сахалин и Курильские острова), и вся Европа от Испании на юге до Финляндии на севере включительно, и Исландия с Гренландией, и США с Канадой; на востоке — Япония, Корея, северный Китай и Монголия. Встречается она и в Южном полушарии (в гораздо меньшем количестве), и все же одна из самых ценных особенностей водяники — это способность расти в тех северных широтах, где видовое разнообразие растений со съедобными плодами ограничивается суровыми климатическими условиями.

Биологические особенности
Водяника черная (черноплодная) — небольшой стелющийся кустарничек 25—50 см высотой, сильноветвистый, с распростертыми по земле густо облиственными ветками (горизонтальная длина побегов может достигать 100 см), на которых могут развиваться придаточные корни и которые склонны образовывать обширные куртины, похожие на ковер (при этом сами побеги напоминают карликовые елочки). Особо обширные заросли водяники называются в народе вороничниками. Иногда бывает сложно сказать, где имеет место колония, а где — отдельная особь, но куртину, образованную одним экземпляром, можно опознать по тому, что со временем в ее центре ветви постепенно отмирают — получается нечто вроде кольца.

Стебли у водяники темно-бурые, в молодом возрасте покрыты коричневатым опушением с выраженными волосками. Листья вечнозеленые, очередные, мелкие — менее 1 см длиной, узкие с сильно завернутыми вниз краями (они могут даже смыкаться), что делает их похожими на хвоинки; листовые пластины сверху темно-зеленые, снизу покрыты густым рыжим опушением. Лист может держаться на ветви до 5 лет. Цветет водяника в мае—июне (в европейской части, в Сибири цветение начинается позже).

Цветки расположены в пазухах листьев укороченных побегов. Они мелкие, одиночные (реже в малоцветковом соцветии из 2—3 штук), розоватые или красные, почти незаметные. Водяника двудомна, ягоды образуются не на каждом экземпляре. Опыляется насекомыми. Плоды созревают в сентябре, они шаровидные до 0,5 см в диаметре с жесткой кожицей и твердыми семенами, черные, похожи на ягоды черники. Ягоды не опадают до весны.

Типичные места обитания водяники — сфагновые болота, мохово-лишайниковые и каменистые тундры и сосновые леса, но она может расти и на песках (на дюнах и речных косах), и в горах в субальпийском и альпийском поясе. При этом для водяники свойственен тесный симбиоз с грибами, что создает дополнительные сложности в ее культивировании — при попытках простого пересаживания в сад обычные дикие растения плохо растут и относительно быстро погибают. Для нее надо или создавать искусственный субстрат, или использовать культурные формы.

Водяника черная растет медленно. Она светолюбива, влаголюбива и исключительно морозоустойчива.

Существуют и другие виды водяники.
Водяника обоеполая. Однодомное растение (главное отличие от водяники черной) с темно-зелеными листьями, ягоды черные.

Водяника красная (красноплодная). Южноамериканский вид, отличающийся красными ягодами.

Водяника почти-голарктическая. Однодомное растение с черными ягодами, внешние отличия от водяники черной не слишком существенны.

Ценность культуры
Плоды водяники можно употреблять в пищу свежими — они неплохо утоляют жажду, но в целом почти безвкусны из-за невысокого содержания сахаров и кислот. При переработке сахар нетрудно добавить, поэтому чаще всего из них готовят варенье, повидло, мармелад и начинку для пирогов. Несколько реже их используют как приправу к рыбе и мясу. В некоторых национальных кухнях ягоды водяники после зимнего хранения употребляют с маслом и жиром как второе блюдо.
В плодах водяники содержатся провитамин А, витамин С, бензойная и уксусная кислоты, дубильные и красящие вещества, смолы, флавоноиды, сахара, эфирные масла, сапонины и микроэлементы (особенно марганец). Ее ягоды обладают мочегонным действием и полезны при многих заболеваниях почек.

В народной медицине отвары или настои из листьев и побегов применяют для лечения диареи и других желудочных заболеваний, эпилепсии, параличей, нарушений обмена веществ, а также при головной боли, переутомлении и как противоцинготное средство. Кроме того, отвар из листьев считается хорошим средством для укрепления волос, а из корней — средством от глаз-ных болезней.

Благодаря высокому содержанию в ягодах пигмента антоциана в прошлом их широко использовали в качестве естественного красителя (еще в конце позапрошлого века существовала особая вишневая краска для окрашивания шерсти).
Как декоративное растение водяника используется для оформления альпийских горок и каменистых садиков. Иногда ее сочетают с многолетними цветами в качестве фона с оригинальной фактурой («елочки»), но лучше всего выращивать ее с другими вересковыми, поскольку их требования к почве и уходу совпадают.

Сорта
Официально зарегистрированных сортов водяники нет, но в продаже встречаются ее декоративные формы (заграничные сорта):
Bernstein — с желтоватой листвой.

Irland — с густой зеленой листвой и стелющимися ветвями.

Lucia — с желтой листвой.

Smaragd—с густой темно-зеленой блестящей листвой и стелющимися ветвями.

Zitronella — с густой лимонно-желтой блестящей листвой.

Выбор места
Водяника предпочитает кислые легкие песчаные и торфянистые почвы с pH 4,5, не переносит тяжелых глинистых грунтов и застоя воды. Для выращивания пересаженных из леса кустиков-дикоросов готовят землесмесь из дерновой земли, торфа и песка в равных пропорциях, которую можно насыпать в посадочную яму или в контейнер, и прокладывают слой дренажа толщиной около 10 см из щебня и песка.

Способы размножения
Семенами, черенками и отводками (без выраженных особенностей).

Схема посадки, размер посадочной ямы
Растения размещают на расстоянии 30—50 см друг от друга. Посадочную яму делают 30—40 см длиной и шириной при глубине 40 см. Глубина посадки совпадает с глубиной ямы (40 см). Корневую шейку надо заглублять в почву на 2 см ниже поверхности почвы. После посадки землю вокруг водяники обязательно надо замульчировать слоем торфа толщиной 5—6 см.

Поливы
Поливы проводятся по мере необходимости, так, чтобы земля полностью не пересыхала и не была слишком влажной. В сухую и/или жаркую погоду поливать водянику надо обязательно.

Подкормки
Начиная со следующего года после посадки водянику желательно подкармливать. Подкормки обычно проводят один раз за сезон, в основном нитроаммофоской (50 г на 1 м2).

Прочий уход
Водяника способна подавлять любые сорняки, прополки требуются ей только в первые годы жизни.

Обрезка
Водянике желательно устраивать ежегодную санитарную обрезку, состоящую в удалении сухих и поврежденных побегов, но в целом можно обойтись вообще без обрезки.

Особенности сбора и хранения урожая
Водянику заготавливают осенью. Благодаря высокому содержанию в ягодах бензойной кислоты их можно без дополнительной обработки длительное время хранить в замороженном виде в герметически закрытой стеклянной таре.

Прочие особенности
Вредителями и болезнями повреждается редко.

Источник: supersadovod.ru

112 КОММЕНТАРИИ

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