Алыча
Семейство Розоцветные

Алыча известна как минимум с начала нашей эры, а по некоторых данным, в странах Ближнего и Среднего Востока была распространена намного раньше. И сегодня во многих восточных странах, таких как Турция, Сирия, Иран, Афганистан и Индия, алыча является среди косточковых плодовой культурой номер один В природе существует много различных подвидов и культурных форм и даже несколько видов алычи.

Довольно длительное время считалось, что все ее разнообразие проявляется в рамках одного вида — слива (алыча) растопыренная, получившего широкое распространение на территории Европы (а также Украины и России). Однако на самом деле, кроме нее, есть еще четыре окультуренных вида: алыча каспийская, алыча иранская, алыча сирийская и алыча ферганская, имеющие ограниченные ареалы обитания.

На юге — в Крыму, на Кавказе и в Средней Азии — алыча растопыренная до сих пор распространена как дикорос, а в культуре (особенно в любительских садах) ее можно встретить вплоть до Северо-Западного региона. Именно к этому виду относится большинство известных у нас сортов и форм. Есть формы колючие, лишенные колючек (Иран) и слабоколючие, с желтыми, красными (большинство видов) или черными плодами (Восточная Грузия, Армения), высокорослые и низкорослые, засухоустойчивые и влаголюбивые (Западная Грузия).

Также существуют и декоративные формы алычи с крупными пурпурными листьями, розовыми цветками и темными винно-красными плодами, с декоративными листьями и т.п. Однако из всего многообразия алычи в плодоводстве выращивается форма под названием Миробалан (нередко его произносят как «мирабель», что иногда создает дополнительную путаницу, так как это название используется для обозначения разновидности сливы), имеющая целый ряд так называемых экотипов (западногрузинская, таврическая и пр.).

Биологические особенности
Алыча, по мнению многих ученых, — прародитель культурных слив и имеет с ними немало общего. Она — быстрорастущее растение, с очень сильной побегообразующей способностью. Дикорастущие деревья алычи достигают 15 м высотой, культурные — максимум 10 м, а большинство сортовых — до 5 м, среди культурных форм встречаются и кустарниковые.

Цветет алыча очень рано, однако весенние заморозки ей не так страшны, как другим косточковым культурам. Плодоношение сосредоточено на однолетних приростах и многолетних плодовых образованиях. Плоды начинают созревать с конца июня и по август. Косточка от мякоти не отделяется.

Алыча опыляется насекомыми, она может служить опылителем для слив (и даже скрещивается с ними) и является замечательным подвоем как для них, так и для абрикоса и персика (иногда на нее прививают даже миндаль), поскольку повышает устойчивость этих культур к неблагоприятным погодным и почвенным факторам и даже некоторым болезням.
В условиях дикой природы алыча обитает на освещенных местах опушек, окраин леса, часто встречается на склонах возле водоемов.

Ценность культуры
По вкусовым качествам плоды алычи, как правило, уступают сливам, однако они более полезны в качестве диетического и лечебного продукта. Их употребляют не столько в свежем виде, сколько для различных кулинарных заготовок: мармелады, варенье, джемы и т.п., нередко используют как приправу, а в восточных странах даже готовят из нее тесто для лаваша.

В плодах алычи в довольно большом количестве присутствуют углеводы (точное их содержание зависит от разновидности или сорта), пектины, азотсодержащие соединения, витамины С и Е, каротин (особенно его много в плодах красноплодных сортов), тритерпеноиды, стероиды, кумарины, дубильные вещества, катехины, флавоноиды, высшие алифатические углеводороды и алифатические спирты, а также жирное масло.

Как лекарственное сырье используются также листья и ветки алычи. Листья алычи содержат витамины С и Е, фенолкарбоновые кислоты, флавоноиды (кемпферол, кверцетин, авикулярин, рутозид и др.) и антоцианы. В цветках содержатся в основном флавоноиды.

Сорта
В Госреестр РФ включено всего три сорта настоящей алычи (иногда под этим названием некорректно фигурирует вид слива русская), а Украине их в несколько раз больше.

Общепринятой строгой классификации сортов алычи не существует. Крымские формы алычи, получившие сборное название Аюша, относятся к таврическому экотипу. Наряду с ним распространен западногрузинский экотип алычи.

По хозяйственным признакам алыча разделена на две группы: алучи и ткемали.

В группу алучи входят формы с довольно крупными, шаровидными, зеленоватыми плодами с нежной мякотью, раннего срока созревания. Их легко опознать по наличию бороздки с углублением у основания плода.

Группа ткемали объединяет большое разнообразие форм: от мелких (5—6 г) до крупных (25—32 г). По окраске плоды также различны — от желтых до темно- фиолетовых, почти черных, имеют разную консистенцию и вкусовые качества, но бороздка у них отсутствует.

В отличие от алучи, используемой в свежем виде, ткемали идет на переработку для изготовления различных консервов.

Сортимент крупноплодной культурной алычи основан на алыче гибридной, полученной путем целенаправленной межвидовой гибридизации со сливой китайской и другими видами слив. Впервые такие гибридные сорта были получены в Никитском ботаническом саду. Сейчас активно выводятся сорта в Киеве.

Лучшими для почвенно-климатических условий Лесостепи Украины считаются сорта Обильная , Оленька, Машенька, Крымская роза.

Десертная. Сорт районирован в Украине в Крымской области. Выведен в Никитском ботаническом саду (гибрид: слива Бербанк + алыча Таврийская). Дерево среднерослое, плодоносить начинает на 2—3-й год и ежегодно дает урожаи. Плоды крупные (масса 25—35 г), округло-овальные, темно-пурпурные, покрыты негустым сизым налетом; мякоть оранжево-красная или темно-вишневая, очень плотная, кисловато-сладкая, ароматная. Косточка от мякоти отделяется плохо. Урожайность высокая.

Созревают плоды в первой половине августа, прочно держатся на дереве, хранятся две-три недели, транспортабельны. Плоды пригодны для употребления как в свежем виде, так и для заготовок, особенно для приготовления компотов. Устойчив к грибковым болезням, достаточно зимостойкий для условий Крыма.

Карамельная. Дерево среднерослое. Плодоносить начинает на третий год. Плоды средние (масса 25 г), темно-красные; мякоть плотная, кисло-сладкая, вкус хороший. Созревают плоды в конце июля. Урожайность в первые годы плодоношения — до 40 кг с дерева. Плоды используются главным образом для технической переработки. Зимостойкость высокая.

Красномясая-2. Дерево среднерослое. Плоды крупные, округлые, темно-красные; созревают в середине июля. Урожайность — до 40 кг с дерева. Плоды можно использовать для всех видов переработки. Зимостойкость высокая.

Любительская (гибрид сортов Витаминная, Васильевская и Десертная). Дерево среднерослое. Плоды средней величины (масса 20—25 г), округлые, фиолетово-бурые; мякоть темно-кремовая, нежная, сочная, кисло-сладкого вкуса, содержит много сахаров, лимонной кислоты, пектиновых веществ, витамина С и каротина. Дегустационная оценка высокая. Плоды созревают рано, в начале июля (на 3—5 дней раньше Киевской гибридной). Урожайность — 35—50 кг с молодого дерева. Плоды универсального назначения.

Никитская желтая. Сорт районирован в Украине в Крымской области. Выделен из сеянцев крымских местных сортов в Никитском ботаническом саду. Деревья выше среднего роста. Плодоносить начинает на третий год. Плоды средней величины (масса 16—18 г) или крупные (25—30 г), округлые, зеленовато-желтые или зеленовато-кремовые с бледно-розовым загаром; мякоть ярко-желтая, средней плотности, сочная, вкус оценивается как хороший. На Южном берегу Крыма плоды созревают в первой, а в степных районах во второй декаде июля. Высокоурожайный сорт. Косточка очень маленькая, от мякоти не отделяется. Плоды используются в свежем виде и для заготовок (варенья). Сорт отличается нетребовательностью к почвам, устойчив к грибковым заболеваниям.

Неберджайская ранняя. Дерево высокорослое. Плоды мелкие (масса 11 г), темно-красные, созревают в начале июля. Урожайность — 40 кг с дерева. Зимостойкость средняя.

Оленька (гибрид сортов Обильная и Пионерка). Сорт выведен в Государственном Никитском ботаническом саду. Плоды крупные (масса 25—30 г), мякоть в центре желтовато-кремовая, ближе к кожице — малиново-красная, вкус оценивается как хороший. Плоды созревают в июле.

Пионерка. Сорт районирован в Украине в Крымской области. Выведен на основе местных крымских форм алычи в Никитском ботаническом саду. Деревья высотой выше среднего, крона уплощенно-округлая. Плодоносить начинает на 3—4-й год. Плоды крупные (масса 20—25 и до 35 г), округло-яйцевидные, пурпурно-красные с тонким восковым налетом; мякоть желтая, полу-прозрачная, сочная, плотная, кисловато-сладкая. Косточка небольшая, плохо отделяется от мякоти. На Южном берегу Крыма плоды созревают в конце июня — начале июля, а в степных районах Украины и на Херсонщине — в середине июля. Лежкость и транспортабельность плодов хорошие. Можно использовать как в свежем, так и в переработанном виде. Сорт нетребователен к почвам, среднезимостойкий, устойчив к грибковым заболеваниям. Высокоурожайный.

Пурпуровая. Дерево среднерослое. Плоды средние по размеру, бордовые, созревают в первой декаде июля. Урожайность — до 50 кг с дерева. Плоды используются в свежем виде и для технической переработки (кроме варенья). Зимостойкость средняя.
Слаборослая Кубани. Дерево низкорослое. Плодоносить начинает на третий год. Плоды крупнее среднего (масса 25 г), темно-красные, кисло-сладкие, созревают во второй декаде июля. Урожайность высокая. Плоды можно использовать в свежем виде и для технической переработки. Сорт отличается повышенной зимостойкостью.

Агротехника
В целом требования алычи похожи на таковые у сливы, но алыча при большей теплолюбивости менее требовательна ко всем остальным факторам и легче переносит ошибки, допущенные при уходе.

Алыча хорошо растет на любой плодородной влажной почве. Для нее надо выбирать теплые, хорошо освещенные места.
Алычу можно размножать и порослью, и прививкой. Прививать ее можно на поросль окулировкой «глазком». Корнесобственные деревья реже перемерзают и меньше страдают от болезней.

Осенью, под перекопку, в почву для алычи вносят 4—6 кг навоза или перегноя, 100—150 г суперфосфата и 30—35 г калийной соли на 1 м2. В посадочные ямы насыпают 8—10 кг перегноя. Лучшее время для посадки алычи — весна. Густота посадки деревьев на хороших почвах (при орошении) для сильнорослых сортов — 8×6 или 8 х 4 м, для слаборослых —6 х 3,6 х 4 м. Глубина ямы — 80 х 70 см.

После посадки саженцы обрезают и поливают (3—4 ведра воды на растение). На протяжении весны и в начале лета поливают еще 2—3 раза.

Крону алычи обычной формируют как разреженно-ярусную, но с учетом природных особенностей сорта или типа.
При обрезке молодых плодоносящих деревьев нужно придерживаться принципа подчинения ветвей центральному проводнику, хотя не столь строго, как у семечковых.

Прочий уход за взрослыми деревьями сводится к белению ствола, периодическим поливам (частота зависит от погодных условий) и подкормкам.

Источник: supersadovod.ru

204 КОММЕНТАРИИ

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