Абрикосоалыча (Абрикос черный)
Семейство Розоцветные

Это интересное растение, представляющее собой межродовой гибрид между абрикосом и алычой, существует только в культуре и в диком виде нигде не встречается. Наибольшее распространение эта культура получила в Средней Азии и Закавказье, а также в южных странах Западной Европы и в США.

В Украине его можно увидеть главным образом в Крыму (именно там выведено большинство отечественных сортов), в России его выращивают в Краснодарском крае. Вернее, правильней было бы сказать «выращивали», потому что в последние десятилетия селекционные работы над этой культурой были направлены в сторону повышения ее зимостойкости, поэтому не исключено, что со временем абрикосоалыча появится и в северных областях Украины, и во многих «нетипичных» для нее регионах РФ.

Биологические особенности
Являясь межродовым гибридом, абрикосоалыча объединила в себе признаки обеих родительских культур и занимает как бы промежуточное положение между ними, хотя во внешнем виде дерева от абрикоса обыкновенного у нее все-таки взято больше. Не случайно эта культура известна под названием «черный абрикос». Правда, у многих сортов деревья более низкорослые, чем у абрикоса обыкновенного, среди них встречаются и настоящие карлики.

При этом плоды абрикосоалычи у многих сортов по вкусу имеют больше общего с алычой (хотя и вкуснее ее), а по виду представляют собой нечто среднее: у них опушенная кожица, чаще всего темно-пурпурной окраски (у различных сортов она может быть разной, вплоть до желтой), мякоть по консистенции почти алычовая, но пахнет, как абрикос, косточка от мякоти отделяется плохо. Средняя масса плода — 20—30 г.

От алычи абрикосоалыча унаследовала и многие положительные качества. Эта культура более зимостойка, чем абрикос обыкновенный (в том числе намного лучше переносит губительные для него весенние заморозки), регулярнее плодоносит и намного реже абрикоса поражается монилиозом (одной из разновидностей гнилей), клястероспориозом и другими опасными для абрикоса обыкновенного болезнями, что само по себе делает эту культуру весьма перспективной.

Опыление у черного абрикоса перекрестное. Все сорта хорошо опыляют друг друга.

Другой интересной особенностью абрикосоалычи является ее способность скрещиваться как с абрикосом обыкновенным и алычой, так и с представителями других видов и родов — терном, сливой, вишнесливами и прочими плодовыми культурами, которые также могут выступать в роли опылителей.

Ценность культуры
Плоды абрикосоалычи используются так же, как и плоды абрикоса обыкновенного и алычи. В свежем виде они несколько уступают по вкусу лучшим сортам абрикоса, но превосходят менее удачные, а в переработанном — не уступают вовсе. О варенье из черного абрикоса очень хорошо отзывался И. В. Мичурин, считая, что оно «неизмеримо выше качеством», чем из обычных абрикосов.

Выращенные из семян сеянцы абрикосоалычи можно использовать в качестве подвоя для абрикоса обыкновенного, персика и сливы.

Сорта
Районированных сортов абрикосоалычи не существует— в качестве отдельной культуры официально она еще не признана, но ее отдельные сорта нередко рассматривают в числе сортов абрикоса обыкновенного.

Из старых сортов наиболее распространены сорта Шлор Циран, Манарези к Американский черный. В последние годы их существенно потеснили новые сорта, обладающие лучшим вкусом и отличающиеся большим размером плодов.

Кубанский черный. Дерево среднерослое. Самобесплоден. Плоды средние и крупнее (масса 30—40 г), овальные, темно-красные. Мякоть плотная, желтая, но ближе к кожице розовая, кисло-сладкая, ароматная. Косточка отделяется легко. Сорт отличается повышенной зимостойкостью, весьма устойчив к болезням.

Мелитопольский черный. Дерево высокорослое. Плоды средние (масса 30 г), овальные со слабозаметным швом, темно-бордовые с опушением; созревают в середине июля. Мякоть красная, сочная, кисло-сладкая. Косточка полуотделяющаяся, крупная. Плоды морозостойкие, в сравнении с другими сортами черного абрикоса менее устойчив к монилиозу.

Мышонок. Карликовый сорт (можно выращивать в кадочной культуре). Отличается высокой для культуры зимостойкостью.

Черный бархат. Плоды средние (средняя масса 30 г), округло-эллиптические с «носиком» на вершине, темнокрасные с опушением. Мякоть желтая, плотная, средней сочности, кисло-сладкая, аромат слабый. Косточка отделяется хорошо.

Шлор Циран (Персидский черный). Дословный перевод этого названия с армянского языка так и звучит — «черный абрикос». Плоды средние и мельче среднего (масса 20—30 г), шаровидные или слегка вытянутые, черно-пурпурные с бархатистым опушением. Мякоть от зеленовато-красной до темно-красной, средней плотности и сочности, кисло-сладкая с пикантным привкусом. Косточка отделяется плохо.

В качестве подвоев также выращиваются сорта Алаб-1, Алаб-2, Дружба, Кубань-86 и Эврика, которые считаются «клоновыми».

Агротехника
Поскольку абрикосоалыча не включена в Госреестр и нигде не выращивается в промышленном масштабе, четких правил агротехники для нее практически нет. Однако в целом уход за деревом наиболее близок к уходу за абрикосом обыкновенным.

Выбор места
Абрикосоалыча довольно светолюбива, на участке для нее желательно выделять хорошо освещенные места, по возможности защищенные от северных и восточных ветров. К почвам она не слишком требовательна, лишь бы они были достаточно плодородными; наименее желательны из почв по механической структуре тяжелые глинистые, по химическому составу — выраженно кислые. Абрикосоалыча не переносит застоя воды, вызванного высоким залеганием грунтовых вод, в этом случае саженцы лучше размещать на холмиках.

Способы размножения
Размножается абрикосоалыча главным образом прививкой на сеянцы абрикоса обыкновенного, алычи или подвои из других сортов абрикосоалычи. Кроме этого, ее можно размножать черенкованием (зеленые и одревесневшие черенки). При семенном размножении сортовые признаки черный абрикос почти не сохраняет. Почва для посадки подготавливается так же, как и для всех прочих плодовых деревьев.

Схема посадки, размер посадочной ямы
В среднем одному дереву необходима площадь 4 х 5 м. Уход
За взрослым деревом абрикосоалычи уход минимален (даже меньше, чем за обыкновенным абрикосом, так как ей меньше угрожают болезни): периодически ствол дерева белят, все остальные агротехнические мероприятия проводятся по мере необходимости.

Обрезка, формирование кроны
Четких схем нет. Абрикосоалычу можно формировать и как абрикос обыкновенный, и как алычу, при этом ее деревьям довольно часто придают низкоштамбовую кустовидную или полукустовидную форму. Общие принципы формирования кроны такого типа те же, что и для карликовых яблонь.

Омолаживающая и оздоровительная обрезка про-водятся регулярно, как у всех прочих косточковых культур.

Поливы
Во время сильного роста побегов (весна и первая половина лета) в случае длительного отсутствия дождей черный абрикос желательно поливать хотя бы раз в месяц, но во второй половине лета полив надо прекратить.

Подкормки
Четких правил нет, но на подкормки абрикосоалыча отзывчива, и потому начиная со второго года после посадки ее желательно подкармливать как минимум весной и осенью.
Прополка осуществляется по мере необходимости.

Уборка урожая
Убирать урожай можно, когда большинство плодов приобретет основную окраску.

Вредители и болезни
Почти все сорта абрикосоалычи устойчивы к основным заболеваниям косточковых, но могут поражаться типичными для них вредителями.

Источник: supersadovod.ru

197 КОММЕНТАРИИ

  1. Howdy, I think your website might be having web browser compatibility issues.
    When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine however, when opening in I.E.,
    it has some overlapping issues. I merely wanted to give
    you a quick heads up! Apart from that, great website!

  2. I’m no longer sure where you are getting your information, however good topic.
    I needs to spend a while finding out much more or figuring out more.
    Thanks for wonderful info I was on the lookout for this info for
    my mission.

  3. I like the helpful information you supply on your articles.

    I’ll bookmark your weblog and test once more right here frequently.
    I am slightly certain I will be told many new stuff right here!
    Good luck for the next!

  4. Thanks for your personal marvelous posting! I
    really enjoyed reading it, you can be a great author.I will
    be sure to bookmark your blog and definitely will come back sometime soon. I want to encourage you
    to ultimately continue your great posts, have a nice evening!

  5. I’ve been browsing online more than 4 hours
    today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours.
    It is pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if all website owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the web will be
    much more useful than ever before.

  6. Hi there! I know this is sort of off-topic but I had to ask.
    Does operating a well-established website like yours require a massive amount work?

    I’m completely new to blogging but I do write in my journal every day.
    I’d like to start a blog so I can easily share my personal experience and thoughts online.
    Please let me know if you have any ideas or tips for brand new aspiring bloggers.
    Thankyou!

  7. Have you ever considered publishing an ebook or guest authoring on other websites?
    I have a blog based upon on the same topics you discuss and would love to have you share some stories/information. I know my visitors
    would appreciate your work. If you’re even remotely interested, feel
    free to shoot me an e mail.

  8. I don’t know whether it’s just me or if everyone else encountering issues with
    your website. It appears as though some of the text on your posts are running off the screen. Can someone else please comment and let me know
    if this is happening to them as well? This might be a
    issue with my web browser because I’ve had this
    happen before. Thanks

  9. Oh my goodness! Awesome article dude! Thank you so much, However I
    am experiencing difficulties with your RSS.

    I don’t know why I am unable to subscribe to it. Is there anybody else getting identical RSS issues?
    Anyone who knows the answer will you kindly respond? Thanks!!

  10. I used to be suggested this web site through my cousin. I am no longer certain whether or
    not this submit is written by way of him as no
    one else recognise such specified about my difficulty.
    You’re incredible! Thank you!

  11. Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues.
    When I look at your blog in Chrome, it looks fine but when opening
    in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up!

    Other then that, wonderful blog!

  12. An impressive share! I’ve just forwarded this
    onto a colleague who has been doing a little
    research on this. And he actually bought me lunch due to
    the fact that I stumbled upon it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this….

    Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending some time to discuss this topic here on your site.

  13. Hello, Neat post. There is a problem together with your website in web explorer, might check this?
    IE still is the market leader and a big element of people will omit your great writing due to
    this problem.

  14. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you design this
    website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you?

    Plz reply as I’m looking to design my own blog and would like to know where
    u got this from. cheers

  15. Fantastic items from you, man. I have consider your stuff previous to and
    you’re simply too fantastic. I actually like what you have
    got here, really like what you are saying and the best way wherein you assert it.
    You’re making it enjoyable and you still take
    care of to stay it smart. I can not wait to learn far
    more from you. This is actually a terrific website.

  16. You actually make it seem so easy together with your presentation but I
    find this matter to be actually something that I feel I would by
    no means understand. It sort of feels too complex and extremely wide for
    me. I’m having a look ahead in your next post, I will
    try to get the dangle of it!

  17. This is really interesting, You are a very skilled blogger.
    I have joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post.

    Also, I have shared your website in my social networks!

  18. Hmm is anyone else having problems with the
    pictures on this blog loading? I’m trying to find out if its a problem on my end
    or if it’s the blog. Any responses would be greatly appreciated.

  19. I was suggested this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this
    post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my problem.
    You’re wonderful! Thanks!

  20. Hey I am so glad I found your web site, I really found you by error, while
    I was looking on Digg for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like
    to say cheers for a tremendous post and a all round interesting blog (I also
    love the theme/design), I don’t have time to browse it all
    at the moment but I have saved it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a lot more, Please do
    keep up the excellent b.

  21. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as
    though you relied on the video to make your point. You obviously know what youre talking about,
    why waste your intelligence on just posting videos to your blog when you could
    be giving us something enlightening to read?

  22. This design is spectacular! You obviously know how to
    keep a reader entertained. Between your wit and your
    videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well, almost…HaHa!)
    Fantastic job. I really enjoyed what you had to say, and
    more than that, how you presented it. Too cool!

  23. Hi there, I found your site via Google whilst searching for a comparable
    subject, your web site got here up, it looks good. I’ve bookmarked it
    in my google bookmarks.
    Hello there, simply became aware of your blog thru Google, and found that
    it’s really informative. I am gonna watch out for brussels.
    I will appreciate when you proceed this in future.

    Many other folks shall be benefited out of your writing.
    Cheers!

  24. Good day! Do you know if they make any plugins to
    assist with SEO? I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very
    good gains. If you know of any please share.
    Thank you!

  25. An outstanding share! I have just forwarded this onto a colleague who has been doing a little research
    on this. And he actually bought me breakfast due to the
    fact that I stumbled upon it for him… lol. So let me
    reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for
    spending time to discuss this matter here on your web page.

  26. Do you have a spam issue on this website; I also am a blogger, and I was wondering your situation; we have developed some
    nice practices and we are looking to swap strategies with other folks, please shoot me an email if interested.

  27. You really make it seem really easy with your presentation but I find this matter to be actually something which
    I believe I might never understand. It seems too complicated and very vast
    for me. I’m having a look ahead for your subsequent put up, I’ll attempt to get
    the dangle of it!

  28. hi!,I really like your writing very so much! percentage we keep in touch more approximately your article on AOL?
    I need a specialist in this area to unravel my
    problem. Maybe that is you! Taking a look ahead to look you.

  29. Hi there I am so happy I found your website,
    I really found you by accident, while I was browsing on Bing
    for something else, Anyways I am here now and would just like to say many thanks for a remarkable post and a all round interesting blog (I also
    love the theme/design), I don’t have time to go through it
    all at the minute but I have saved it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a lot more,
    Please do keep up the superb b.

  30. Hi there I am so thrilled I found your blog page,
    I really found you by accident, while I was looking on Yahoo for something else, Anyhow I am here now and would just like to
    say thanks for a tremendous post and a all round exciting blog
    (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to read through it all at the minute but I
    have saved it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to
    read more, Please do keep up the superb work.

  31. Thanks for a marvelous posting! I actually enjoyed reading it, you could be a great author.I will make sure
    to bookmark your blog and definitely will come back very soon. I want to encourage you to
    continue your great posts, have a nice day!

  32. Thanks for any other excellent post. The place else may just anyone
    get that type of information in such an ideal
    manner of writing? I’ve a presentation subsequent week, and I’m on the search
    for such information.

  33. Hello very cool website!! Man .. Excellent ..
    Superb .. I’ll bookmark your web site and take the feeds additionally?
    I am happy to seek out a lot of helpful info here in the post, we want
    work out extra techniques in this regard, thank you for sharing.

    . . . . .

  34. You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to be really something that I think I would never understand.
    It seems too complicated and extremely broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next
    post, I’ll try to get the hang of it!

  35. I am really impressed together with your writing skills as well as
    with the layout in your blog. Is this a paid
    subject or did you customize it your self? Either way keep up the excellent quality
    writing, it’s rare to see a great blog like this one nowadays..

  36. By with all the same numbers since the above examples your dollars would quadruple
    in 18 years. So, the exam for your Buffalos
    will come in the months ahead whenever we learn if investors make second and third orders for Buffalos.
    The investment advice that most people follow usually is to purchase stocks that grow over time.

  37. My spouse and I stumbled over here from a different page and thought I might as well check things out.
    I like what I see so now i’m following you. Look forward to checking
    out your web page yet again.

  38. Today, I went to the beach front with my kids.

    I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year
    old daughter and said «You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.»
    She placed the shell to her ear and screamed. There was
    a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear. She never wants
    to go back! LoL I know this is totally off topic but I had to tell someone!

  39. Hello! I realize this is somewhat off-topic however I needed to ask.

    Does operating a well-established website like yours take a massive amount work?
    I’m brand new to operating a blog but I do write in my journal every day.
    I’d like to start a blog so I can easily share my own experience and feelings online.
    Please let me know if you have any suggestions or tips
    for new aspiring bloggers. Appreciate it!

  40. I am curious to find out what blog platform you’re using?
    I’m having some small security issues with my latest
    website and I would like to find something more safeguarded.
    Do you have any recommendations?

  41. You really make it appear really easy along with your presentation however I to find this topic to be really one thing which I feel I would
    by no means understand. It seems too complicated and very
    wide for me. I am having a look forward for your subsequent submit,
    I will try to get the dangle of it!

  42. you’re in point of fact a good webmaster. The web site loading speed is incredible.
    It seems that you’re doing any distinctive trick. Also, The contents are
    masterwork. you have performed a magnificent job on this matter!

  43. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you create this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it
    for you? Plz answer back as I’m looking to design my own blog and would like to find out where u got this
    from. many thanks

  44. Does your site have a contact page? I’m having trouble locating it but, I’d like to
    shoot you an e-mail. I’ve got some ideas for your blog you might be interested in hearing.
    Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it
    expand over time.

  45. Oh my goodness! Awesome article dude! Thank you, However I am
    experiencing issues with your RSS. I don’t know why I can’t join it.
    Is there anyone else having identical RSS problems?
    Anyone who knows the solution will you kindly respond?
    Thanx!!

  46. Please let me know if you’re looking for a article writer
    for your site. You have some really good articles
    and I think I would be a good asset. If you ever want
    to take some of the load off, I’d love to write some articles for your blog in exchange for
    a link back to mine. Please send me an e-mail if interested.
    Many thanks!

  47. You could certainly see your enthusiasm within the work you write.

    The arena hopes for even more passionate writers such as you who
    aren’t afraid to mention how they believe.
    All the time follow your heart.

  48. Great goods from you, man. I’ve understand your stuff previous to and
    you’re just too fantastic. I really like what you’ve acquired here, really like
    what you are saying and the way in which you say it.
    You make it entertaining and you still care for to keep it smart.
    I can not wait to read far more from you. This is actually a tremendous website.

  49. Hmm it looks like your site ate my first comment (it was super long) so I
    guess I’ll just sum it up what I wrote and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog.
    I too am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to everything.
    Do you have any points for novice blog writers?

    I’d genuinely appreciate it.

  50. I loved as much as you’ll receive carried out right here. The sketch is attractive, your authored subject matter stylish.
    nonetheless, you command get bought an impatience over that you wish be delivering the following.
    unwell unquestionably come further formerly again since exactly the same nearly very often inside case
    you shield this increase.

  51. It’s appropriate time to make some plans
    for the future and it’s time to be happy. I have read this
    post and if I could I desire to recommend you few interesting things or tips.
    Maybe you could write next articles relating
    to this article. I wish to read more things approximately it!

  52. Oh my goodness! Awesome article dude! Thank you, However
    I am having difficulties with your RSS. I don’t know the
    reason why I can’t subscribe to it. Is there anyone else having identical RSS issues?
    Anybody who knows the solution can you kindly respond? Thanx!!

  53. I absolutely love your site.. Excellent colors & theme.
    Did you develop this website yourself? Please reply back as I’m wanting to create my own personal website and would like to know where you got this from or
    exactly what the theme is named. Many thanks!

  54. Hey! I know this is kinda off topic nevertheless I’d figured I’d ask.
    Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest authoring a blog article or vice-versa?
    My blog addresses a lot of the same topics as yours
    and I feel we could greatly benefit from
    each other. If you might be interested feel
    free to shoot me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you!

    Excellent blog by the way!

  55. Hello there I am so excited I found your weblog, I really found you
    by error, while I was browsing on Aol for something else,
    Nonetheless I am here now and would just like to say many thanks for a fantastic post and a all round enjoyable blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to go through it all at the
    minute but I have book-marked it and also added your RSS feeds,
    so when I have time I will be back to read
    a great deal more, Please do keep up the superb job.

  56. However, a house investor would excel to bear in mind to find the advice of the professional property investor before committing significant funds for the
    investment. There would be no cumbersome application procedures and so many business owners find it comfortable
    to get financing commercial vehicle. This is often a mistake that retirees make plus they wind up outliving their income.

  57. Hi there just wanted to give you a quick heads up.
    The words in your content seem to be running off the
    screen in Opera. I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with internet browser compatibility
    but I thought I’d post to let you know. The design and style look great though!
    Hope you get the issue solved soon. Cheers

  58. Hey there this is somewhat of off topic but I was wondering if blogs use
    WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML.
    I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding skills so I wanted
    to get guidance from someone with experience. Any help would be enormously
    appreciated!

  59. Good day! I could have sworn I’ve been to this website before but after browsing through some of
    the post I realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless,
    I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll
    be bookmarking and checking back frequently!

  60. I’m not sure where you’re getting your info, but good topic.
    I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more.
    Thanks for fantastic information I was looking for this info
    for my mission.

  61. Hello there! I know this is kinda off topic but I’d figured I’d ask.

    Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest wrting a blog post
    oor vice-versa? My website covers a lot of the same topics as yours and
    I think we could greatly benefit from each other. If you
    happen too bbe interested feel free to send mme an e-mail.

    I look firward to hearing from you! Awesome
    blog byy the way!

    My web page … inspiration

  62. I was wondering if you ever thought of changing the structure
    of your blog? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say.
    But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people
    could connect with it better. Youve got an awful
    lot of text for only having 1 or 2 pictures. Maybe you could space
    it out better?

  63. I’m amazed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog that’s both educative and interesting, and let me tell
    you, you have hit the nail on the head. The issue
    is something not enough folks are speaking intelligently
    about. I’m very happy I found this during
    my search for something relating to this.

  64. Hello there, I discovered your blog by the use of Google
    whilst looking foor a similar matter, your website got here up, it appears to
    be like great. I’ve bookmarked itt in my
    google bookmarks.
    Hello there, just changed into aware oof your blog
    through Google, and found that iit is truly informative. I’m gonna watch out for brussels.
    I will aporeciate for those who proceed this in future.
    Maany otther folks will likely be benefited out of your writing.
    Cheers!

    Feel free to visit my homepage — https://Www.Chicagolandaesthetics.com

  65. I do not know whether it’s just me or if perhaps everybody else experiencing issues with your website.
    It appears like some of the text within your posts are running off the screen. Can somebody else please comment and let me
    know if this is happening to them as well? This may be a problem with
    my browser because I’ve had this happen previously. Thank you

  66. Hi would you mind stating which blog platform you’re working with?

    I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m having a tough
    time choosing between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
    The reason I ask is because your design and style seems different then most
    blogs and I’m looking for something completely unique.
    P.S Sorry for being off-topic but I had to ask!

ОСТАВЬТЕ ОТВЕТ

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here